The prevalence of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency in the Cape Verdean population in the context of malaria elimination.

16 Mar 2020
DePina, A. J., C. M. Pires, A. J. B. Andrade, A. K. Dia, A. L. Moreira, M. C. M. Ferreira, A. J. Correia, O. Faye, I. Seck and E. H. A. Niang

Cabo Verde aims to eliminate malaria by 2020. In the country, Plasmodium falciparum had been the main parasite responsible for indigenous cases and primaquine is the first line treatment of cases and for radical cure. However, the lack of knowledge of the national prevalence of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency may be one of the constraints to the malaria elimination process. Hence, this first study determines the prevalence of G6PD deficiency (G6PDd) in the archipelago. Blood samples were collected from patients who voluntarily agreed to participate in the study, in the health facilities of eight municipalities on four islands, tested with G6PD CareStart ™ deficiency Rapid Diagnosis Test (RDT). All subjects found to be G6PDd by RDT then underwent enzyme quantification by spectrophotometry. Descriptive statistics and inferences were done using SPSS 22.0 software. A total of 5.062 blood samples were collected, in majority from female patients (78.0%) and in Praia (35.6%). The RDT revealed the prevalence of G6PD deficiency in 2.5% (125/5062) of the general population, being higher in males (5.6%) than in females (1,6%). The highest G6PDd prevalence was recorded in São Filipe, Fogo, (5.4%), while in Boavista no case was detected. The G6PDd activity quantification shown a higher number of partially deficient and deficient males (respectively n = 26 and n = 22) compared to females (respectively n = 18 and n = 7), but more normal females (n = 35) than males (n = 11). According to the WHO classification, most of the G6PDd cases belongs to the class V (34.5%), while the Classes II and I were the less represented with respectively 5.8% and zero cases. This study in Cabo Verde determined the G6PDd prevalence in the population, relatively low compared to other African countries. Further studies are needed to characterize and genotyping the G6PD variants in the country.