P. vivax malaria and migratory populations
Migrant workers are particularly at risk for P. vivax malaria because of the types of job they are involved in (mining, forestry, agriculture).
Migrants, owing to economic hardship or conflict, are at risk because of poor access to healthcare and often crowded and unsatisfactory living conditions.
Population migration between low transmission malaria areas to high malaria transmission ecological settings can re-establish transmission where the parasite has been previously eliminated.
The diversity of P. vivax mosquito vectors means that transmission can be sustained in both rural and urban areas.