Case report: recurrence of Plasmodium vivax malaria due to defective cytochrome P450 2D6 function in Pos Lenjang, Pahang, Malaysia.
Five children in Pos Lenjang, Pahang, Malaysia were PCR-positive for vivax malaria and were admitted to the hospital from 5 to 26 July 2019. One of the patients experienced three episodes of recurrence of vivax malaria. Microsatellite analysis showed that reinfection is unlikely. Drug resistance analysis indicated that Riamet (artemether-lumefantrine) is effective. Cytochrome P450 2D6 (CYP2D6) testing showed that this patient has defective CYP2D6 function. Primaquine failure to clear the Plasmodium vivax hypnozoites may be the cause of recurring infections in this patient. This report highlights the need for the development of liver-stage curative antimalarials that do not require metabolism by the CYP2D6 enzyme.